Harvard Referencing

Harvard Referencing Guide

At UCA, we use the Harvard method of referencing. Download our comprehensive guide on how to write your in-text citations, list of illustrations and bibliography.

Harvard referencing guide

What is Harvard referencing?

When submitting your assignments, it is important to acknowledge ideas taken from other people's work - this enables anyone reading your work to look up the sources of your research. There are a number of different referencing standards that help you do this, but our Teaching, Learning and Assessment Committee chose the internationally recognised Harvard method as the standard referencing and citation system for all courses at UCA in October 2007.

Most universities modify the system slightly to suit the needs of their students, so if you consult other universities' Harvard referencing guides you will find differences between them. For this reason, it is important you use UCA's own Harvard referencing guide when completing your assignments.

Referencing image sources

  • Advertisements

    The image would be labelled as:     Fig.1. Tom Ford Beauty (2011)

     

    Figure number :

    Fig. 1.

    Title of image (in Italics) :

    Tom Ford Beauty                                            

    Year of advertisement campaign (in brackets) :

    (2011)

    In the text: (see fig.1)

    Or if you choose to put your images in the appendices: (see appendix 1)


    In the List of Illustrations:

    Figure 1. Tom Ford Beauty. (2011) Tom Ford Beauty, Mert + Marcus. [Advertisement] At: http://art8amby.wordpress.com/011/06/10/tom-ford-beauty- fall-winter-2011-ad-campaign-preview/ (Accessed on 06.03.12).

    Figure number :

    Figure 1.

    Title of image (in italics) :

    Tom Ford Beauty.

    Year of advertisement campaign (in brackets) :

    (2011)

    Title of advertisement campaign (in italics) :

    Tom Ford Beauty, Mert + Marcus.

    Medium (in square brackets) :

    [Advertisement]

    At URL :

    At: http://art8amby.wordpress.com/2011/06/10/tom-ford-beauty-fall-winter-2011-ad-campaign-preview/                       

    Accessed on :

    (Accessed on 06.03.12)

  • Film and game stills

    Note: Film stills are usually protected by copyright and should not be reproduced without permission. However, if you are using the image in a submitted piece of academic work, it would usually come under the 'fair use' proviso and so be allowed. Reproducing the film still on a website or in any other format is a breach of copyright law.

    Image labelled as:   Fig. 1. Nylon Fashions (1959)

    Figure number :

    Fig. 1.

    Title of advertisement (in Italics) :

    Nylon Fashions                                                 

    Year of creation (in brackets) :

    (1959)

    In the text:  (see fig. 1.)

    Or if you choose to put your images in the appendices: (see appendix 1)


    In the List of Illustrations:

    Figure 1. Nylon Fashions. (1959) From: Nylon Fashions, British Pathé. Directed by: unknown. [Film still] Great Britain: British Pathé. At: http://www.britishpathe.com/video/nylon-fashions (Accessed on 20.03.12).

    Figure number :

    Figure 1.

    Title of image (in italics) :

    Nylon Fashions.

    Year of creation (in brackets) :

    (1959)

    From: Title of film (in italics) :

    From: Nylon Fashions,

    Directed by (if known) :

    Directed by: unknown.

    Medium (in square brackets) :

    [Film still]

    Place of production :

    Great Britain:

    Studio or production company :

    British Pathé.

    At: URL (if relevant) :

    At: http://www.britishpathe.com/video/nylon-fashions                                                           

    Accessed on (if relevant) :

    (Accessed in 20.03.12)

  • Illustrations or images: obtained online

    Image labelled as:     Fig. 1 Women of Britain say "Go!"  (1915)

    Figure number :

    Fig. 1.

    Title of image (in Italics) :

    Women of Britain say "Go!"                                         

    Year of creation (in brackets) :

    (1915)

    In the text: (see fig. 1.)

    Or if you choose to put your images in the appendices: (see appendix 1)


    In your list of illustrations

    Figure 1. Women of Britain say "GO!" (1915) [Poster] At: http://www.vads.ac.uk/collections/IWMPC.html (Accessed on 25.02.13)

    Figure number :

    Figure 1.

    Artist's surname, then first name or initial

    (if unknown, replace with the title of the image) :

    Women of Britain say "Go!"

    Year of creation (if known) (in brackets) :

    (1915)

    Title of image (in italics) (unless artist is unknown, as in this example) :

     

    Medium (in square brackets) :

    [Poster]

    At: URL :

    At: http://www.vads.ac.uk/ collections/IWMPC.html                                         

    Accessed on :

    (Accessed on 25.02.13)

  • Illustrations or images: scanned from a book

    Image labelled as:     Fig. 6. The Revolving Doors IV: "The Meeting" (1916-17)

    Figure number :

    Fig. 6.

    Title of image (in italics) :

    The Revolving Doors IV: "The Meeting"                                                  

    Year of creation (in brackets) :

    (1916-17)

    In the text: (see fig. 6.)

    Or if you choose to put your images in the appendices: (see appendix 1)


    In your list of illustrations

    Figure 6. Ray, Man (1916-17) The Revolving Doors IV: "The Meeting" [Collage] In: Waldman, A. Collage, Assemblage and the Found Object. Plate 202. London: Phaidon Press Limited.

    Figure number :

    Figure 6.

    Artist's surname, then first name or initial

    (if unknown, replace with the title of the image) :

    Ray, Man

    Year of creation (if known) (in brackets) :

    (1916-17)

    Title of image (in italics) :

    The Revolving Doors IV: "The Meeting"

    Medium (in square brackets) :

    [Collage]

    In: Author's surname and initial :

    In: Waldman, A.

    Title of book (in italics) :

    Collage, Assemblage and the Found Object.                                                      

    Plate No :

    202.

    Place of publication :

    London:

    Publisher :

    Phaidon Press Limited.

  • Illustrations or images: scanned from a magazine or journal

    Image labelled as:     Fig. 9. BL-1201 (2012)

    Figure number :

    Fig. 9.

    Title of image (in italics) :

    BL-1201                                                         

    Year of creation (in brackets) :

    (2012)

    In the text: (see fig. 9.)

    Or if you choose to put your images in the appendices: (see appendix 1)


    In your list of illustrations

    Figure 9. Lee, Il (2012) BL-1201 [ballpoint pen on paper] In: Art News 113 (1) p. 65

    Figure number :

    Figure 9.

    Artist's surname, then first name or initial

    (if unknown, replace with the title of the image) :

    Lee, Il

    Year of creation (if known) (in brackets) :

    (2012)

    Title of image (in italics) :

    BL-1201

    Medium (in square brackets) :

    [ballpoint pen on paper]                                                

    In: journal title (in italics) :

    In: Art News

    Volume number, then issue number (in brackets) :

    113 (1)

    Page number(s) :

    p. 65

  • Photographs

    Image labelled as:   Fig. 5. Dandelion flower bud (2003) 

    Figure number :

    Fig. 5.

    Title of photograph (in Italics) :

    Dandelion flower bud                                             

    Year of creation (in brackets) :

    (2003)

    In the text: (see fig. 5.)

    Or if you choose to put your images in the appendices: (see appendix 1)


    In your list of illustrations

    Figure 5. Walker, Spike (2003) Dandelion flower bud [Photograph; Transverse section through flower (inflorescence) bud of dandelion, viewed with a light microscope, solarized.] At: http://images.wellcome.ac.uk/ (Accessed on 24.06.09)

    Figure number :

    Figure 5.

    Photographer's surname, then first name or initial :

    Walker, Spike

    Year of creation (in brackets) (if known) :

    (2003)

    Title of photograph (in italics) :

    Dandelion flower bud

    Medium (in square brackets) :

    [Photograph; Transverse section through flower (inflorescence) bud of dandelion,viewed with a light microscope, solarized]         

    At: URL :

    At: http://images.wellcome.ac.uk

    Accessed on :

    (Accessed on 24.06.09)

    Note: If from a book include Place of publication and publisher instead of URL.

  • Table or diagram

    Image labelled as:   Fig. 1. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (1943)

    Figure number :

    Fig. 1.

    Title of table of diagram (in Italics) :

    Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs                                          

    Year of publication (in brackets) :

    (1943)

    In the text: (see fig. 1.)

    Or if you choose to put your images in the appendices: (see appendix 1)


    In your list of illustrations

    Figure 1. Maslow, Abraham (1943) Hierarchy of Needs In: A Theory of Human Motivation. [Diagram] At: http://www.abraham-maslow.com/m_motivation/Hierarchy_of_Needs.asp (Accessed on 20.03.2012)

    Figure number :

    Figure 1.

    Author's surname, then first name or initials :

    Maslow, Abraham

    Year of publication (in brackets) :

    (1943)

    Title of table of diagram (in italics) :

    Hierarchy of Needs

    In: title (if relevant) :

    In: A Theory of Human Motivation.

    At: URL (if relevant) :

    At: http://www.abraham-maslow.com/m_motivation/Hierarchy_of_Needs.asp                                      

    Accessed on :

    (Accessed on 20.03.2012)

    Note: If the table or diagram was scanned from a book or journal, include the publisher information instead of website.

  • Unpublished photographs

    Image labelled as:   Fig. 2. Swimming Pool (2009)

    Figure number :

    Fig. 2.

    Title of Photograph (in Italics) :

    Swimming Pool                                           

    Year of creation (in brackets) :

    (2009)

    In the text: (see fig. 2.)

    Or if you choose to put your images in the appendices: (see appendix 1)


    In your list of illustrations

    Figure 2. Thomson, E. (2009) Swimming Pool [Photograph] In possession of: The author: Farnham.

    Figure number :

    Figure 2.

    Photographer's surname, then first name or initial :

    Thomson, E.

    Year of creation (in brackets) :

    (2009)

    Title of photograph (in italics) :

    Swimming Pool

    Medium (in square brackets) :

    [Photograph]

    In possession of: author or named person :

    In possession of: The author:                                                   

    Geographical location :

    Farnham.

     

Need more help?

If you need more help with your referencing remember that you can book an appointment with a Learning and Teaching Librarian by contacting Gateway.

  • Emails

    In the text:

    (Harvey, 2008)

    Email Author's surname :

    Harvey,                                                                  

    Year email was sent :

    2008


    In the bibliography:

    Harvey, R. (2008) Re: The Films of David Lynch. [Email sent to Joan Brown, 12th January 2008].

    Email author's surname then first name or initial :

    Harvey, R.

    Year email was sent (in brackets) :

    (2008)

    Subject of email (in italics) :

    Re: The Films of David Lynch

    Medium (in square brackets) and date sent :

    [Email sent to Joan Brown, 12th January 2008]                                                     

    Note: It would be advisable to keep a paper copy as evidence of the email and put it in your appendices.

  • Exhibition catalogues and gallery brochures

    In the text:

    (Harwood, 2002)

    Author or Curator Surname :

    Harwood,                                                

    Year of publication :

    2002


    In the bibliography:

    Harwood, L. (2002) Inspired by Italy: Dutch Landscape Painting 1600-1700. London: Dulwich Picture Gallery.

    Author or curator, surname then first name or initial :

    Harwood, L.

    Year of publication (in brackets) :

    (2002)

    Exhibition title (in italics) :

    Inspired by Italy: Dutch Landscape Painting 1600-1700.                                   

    Place of exhibition :

    London:

    Name of gallery or museum :

    Dulwich Picture Gallery.

    Note: If there is no author / curator, use the Gallery or Museum name, so for example, this would be cited in your text as: (The Saatchi Gallery, 2000)

    and entered into your bibliography as: The Saatchi Gallery. (2000) Art Noises at the Saatchi Gallery 2. London: Saatchi Gallery.

  • Film extras

    In the text:

    (The Making of Pocahontas, 2005)

    Title of the film extra (in italics) :

    The Making of Pocahontas,                                                       

    Year of production :

    2005


    In the bibliography:

    The Making of Pocahontas, From: Pocahontas: 2-disc special edition. (2005) Directed by Eric Goldberg & Mike Gabriel. [DVD] USA: Walt Disney Home Video.

    Title of the film extra (in italics) :

    The Making of Pocahontas,

    From:  film / DVD title & edition details :

    From: Pocahontas: 2-disc special edition.                                                     

    Year of production (in brackets) :

    (2005)

    Directed by :

    Directed by Eric Goldberg & Mike Gabriel.

    Medium (in square brackets) :

    [DVD]

    Place of production :

    USA:

    Studio or production company :

    Walt Disney Home Video.

    Note: If the date of copyright or distribution is different from the date of production, you need to use the original date of production.

    This is because there are often several versions of a film, all with the same title, so it is only the date of production that enables your reader to distinguish one film from the other.

  • Films, DVDs and videotapes

    In the text:

    (The Impressionists with Tim Marlow, 1998)

    Title (in italics) :

    The Impressionists with Tim Marlow,                                                

    Year of publication :

    1998


    In the bibliography:

    The Impressionists with Tim Marlow. (1998) Directed by Phil Grabsky & Ali Ray [DVD] Brighton: Seventh Art Productions.

    Title (in italics) :

    The Impressionists with Tim Marlow.                                                                           

    Year of publication (in brackets) :

    (1998)

    Directed by :

    Directed by Phil Grabsky and Ali Ray

    Medium (in square brackets) :

    [DVD]

    Place of production :

    Brighton:

    Studio or production company :

    Seventh Art Productions.

    Note: If the date of copyright or distribution is different from the date of production, you need to use the original date of production.

    This is because there are often several versions of a film, all with the same title, so it is only the date of production that enables your reader to distinguish one film from the other.

  • Interviews

    In the text:

    (Douglas, 2009)

    Interviewee's surname :

    Douglas,                                                          

    Year of interview :

    2009


    In the bibliography:

    1. Face to face:

    Douglas, Noel (2009) [Interview by Author, 1st February 2009]                                                

    2. Via email:

    Douglas, Noel (2009) [Interview by email, 1st February 2009]

    Interviewee's surname then first name or initial :

    Douglas, Noel

    Year of interview (in brackets) :

    (2009)

    Medium and date (in square brackets) :

    [Interview by Author, 1st February 2009]

    Note: it would be advisable to keep a paper copy of the notes you made during the interview as evidence of the email and put it in your appendices.

  • Journal articles

    In the text:

    (DeDominicis, 2009:63)

    Author's surname :

    DeDominicis,                                                       

    Year of publication :

    2009:

    Page number(s) :

    63


    In the bibliography:

    DeDominicis, J.A. (2009) 'Elise Winters: The Essential Lightness of Being' In: Ornament 32 (3) pp.62-67

    Author's surname, first name or initials :

    DeDominicis, J.A.

    Year of publication (in brackets) :

    (2009)

    Article title in single quotation marks :

    'Elise Winters: The Essential Lightness of Being'                                                   

    In: Journal title (in italics) :

    In: Ornament

    Volume number, then issue number (in brackets) :

    32 (3)

    Page number(s) :

    pp.62-67

  • Journal articles (online)

    In the text:

    (Heimsath, 2005)

    Author's surname :

    Heimsath,                                                   

    Year of publication :

    2005


    In the bibliography:

    Heimsath, K.M. (2005) 'Untitled Identities: Contemporary Art in Lhasa, Tibet' In: Asian art.com 15.02.05 [online] At: http://www.asianart.com/articles/heimsath/index.html (Accessed on 26.07.09)

    Author's surname, then first name or initial :

    Heimsath, K.M.

    Year of publication (in brackets) :

    (2005)

    Title of Article in single quotation marks :

    'Untitled Identities: Contemporary Art in Lhasa, Tibet'

    In: Title of website (in italics) :

    In: Asian art.com

    Volume, issue or date of issue :

    15.02.05

    [online] :

    [online]

    At: URL :

    At: http://www.asianart.com/articles/heimsath/index.html                                                     

    Accessed on :

    (Accessed on 26.07.09)

  • Lectures

    In the text:  

    (Brown, 2003)

    Lecturer's surname :

    Brown,                                                       

    Year of Lecture :

    2003


    In the bibliography:

    Brown, John (2003) An Introductory History of Fashion. London [Lecture at Royal Halls, 5 January 2003].

    Lecturer's surname then first name or initial :

    Brown, John

    Year of lecture (in brackets) :

    (2003)

    Lecture title or subject (in italics) :

    An Introductory History of Fashion.

    Place of lecture :

    London

    Medium and date of lecture (in square brackets) :

    [Lecture at Royal Halls, 5 January, 2003].                                                              

    Note: It would be advisable to keep a paper copy of the notes you took, or were given, during the lecture as evidence and put them in your appendices.

  • Maps

    In the text:

    (Preston and Blackpool, 2002)

    Title (in italics) :

    Preston and Blackpool,                                                                

    Year of publication :

    2002


    In the bibliography :

    Preston and Blackpool. (2002) [Ordnance Survey] Sheet 102, 1:50,000. Southampton: Ordnance survey (Landranger series).

    Title (in italics) :

    Preston and Blackpool.                                                                       

    Year of publication (in brackets) :

    (2002)

    Type of map (in square brackets) :

    [Ordnance survey]

    Sheet number :

    Sheet 102,

    Scale :

    1:50,000.

    Place of publication :

    Southampton:

    Publisher :

    Ordnance Survey

    Series (in brackets) :

    (Landranger series).

    Note: If using the image put this in your list of illustrations and put Fig. no before title.

  • Maps (online)

    In the text:

    (Vienna, Austria, 2009)

    Title (in italics) :

    Vienna, Austria,                                                    

    Year of publication :

    2009


    In the bibliography :

    Vienna, Austria. (2009) Google Earth [online, satellite] At: http://www.maps.google.com (Accessed 06.08.09)

    Title of map (in italics) :

    Vienna, Austria.

    Year of publication (in brackets) :

    (2009)

    Title of online source (in italics) :

    Google Earth

    Type of map (in square brackets) :

    [online satellite]

    At: URL :

    At: http://www.maps.google.com                                                                             

    Accessed on :

    (Accessed on 06.08.09)

    Note: If you want to reference an atlas, it can be done in the same way as referencing a dictionary.

  • Newspaper articles (printed)

    In the text:

    (Ward, 2004)

    Author's surname :

    Ward,                                                                            

    Year of publication :

    2004


    In the bibliography:

    Ward, Lucy (2004) 'A £35,000 Tracey Emin quilt - but worthless if school tries to sell it.' In: The Guardian 30 March 2004 p.1.

    Author's surname, first name or initials :

    Ward, Lucy

    Year of publication (in brackets) :

    (2004)

    Article title in single quotation marks :

    'A £35,000 Tracey Emin quilt - but worthless if school tries to sell it.'                                             

    In: Newspaper title (in italics) :

    In: The Guardian

    Issue date :

    30 March 2004

    Page number(s) :

    p.1.

  • Newspaper articles (online)

    In the text:

    (Jones, 2009)

    Author's surname :

    Jones,                                                                            

    Year of publication :

    2009


    In the bibliography:

    Jones, J. (2009) 'Tracey Emin is far from a narcissist.' In: The Guardian [online] At: http://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/jonathanjonesblog/2009/jun/15/tracey-emin-drawings-white-cube (Accessed on 26.07.09)

    Author's surname, then first name or initial :

    Jones, J.

    Year of publication (in brackets) :

    (2009)

    Title of article in single quotation marks :

    'Tracey Emin is far from a narcissist.'

    In: Title of website (in italics) :

    In: The Guardian

    Medium (in square brackets) :

    [online]

    At: URL :

    At: http://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/jonathanjonesblog/2009/jun/15/tracey-emin-drawings-white-cube                                  

    Accessed on :

    (Accessed on 26.07.09)

  • Podcasts

    In the text:

    (Tate, 2009)

    Originator of podcast :

    Tate,                                                         

    Year of distribution :

    2009


    In the bibliography:

    Tate. (2009) Tateshots: Marina Abramovic joins us to answer your questions 23 [online] 09.07.09. At:  http://www.tate.org.uk/podcasts (Accessed on 22.09.09)

    Originator of podcast :

    Tate.

    Year of distribution (in brackets) :

    (2009)

    Title of podcast (in italics) :

    Tateshots: Marina Abramovic joins us to answer your questions                                               

    Number or title of episode if available :

    23

    Medium (in square brackets) :

    [online]

    Date of podcast :

    09.07.09.

    At: URL :

    At:  http://www.tate.org.uk/podcasts

    Accessed on :

    (Accessed on 22.09.09)

    Note: If the originator of the podcast is an individual rather than an organisation, their surname goes first, followed by their first name or initial.

  • Press releases

    In the text:

    (OFCOM, 2007)

    Organisation :

    OFCOM,                                                                         

    Year of press release :

    2007


    In the bibliography:

    OFCOM. (2007) OFCOM begins market impact assessment of the BBC's proposed Gaelic Digital Service. [online press release] At: http://www.ofcom.org.uk/media/news/2007/08/nr_20070816 (Accessed on 12.03.08)Note: Reference list and bibliographic information is usually available from the organisation issuing the release.

    Organisation :

    OFCOM.

    Year of press release :

    (2007)

    Title of press release (in italics) :

    OFCOM begins Market Impact Assessment of the BBC's proposed Gaelic Digital Service.                                                       

    Medium (in square brackets) :

    [online press release]

    At: URL :

    At: http://www.ofcom.org.uk/media/news/2007/08/nr_20070816

    Accessed on :

    (Accessed on 12.03.08)

    Note: Reference list and bibliographic information is usually available from the organisation issuing the release.

  • Published conference papers

    In the text:

    (Walsh, 2008)

    Surname :

    Walsh,                                                                            

    Year of publication :

    2008


    In the bibliography:

    Walsh, S. (2008) 'Pushing Design Boundaries: Australian Extremes, Main Stream Fashion Limits.' In: Rouse, E. ed. Extreme Fashion: Pushing the Boundaries of Design, Technology and Business. Conference proceedings 2007, Ryserson University Canada 12-15 April 2007.London: CLTAD.

    Author's surname then first name or initial :

    Walsh, S.

    Year of publication (in brackets) :

    (2008)

    Title of the paper/section in single quotation marks :

    'Pushing Design Boundaries: Australian Extremes, Main Stream Fashion Limits.'

    In: editor(s) of the collected work :

    In: Rouse, E. ed. Extreme Fashion: Pushing the Boundaries of Design, Technology and Business.                               

    Conference title, including place and dates conference was held :

    Conference proceedings 2007, Ryserson University, Canada 12-15 April 2007.

    Place of publication :

    London:

    Publisher :

    CLTAD.

Download our Harvard Referencing Guide

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Download.

  • Acts of Parliament

    In the text: 

    (Copyright Designs and Patents Act, 1988)

    Name of the Act (in italics) :

    Copyright, Designs and Patents Act

    Year of publication :

    1988                                                                                             


    In the bibliography: 

    Copyright, Designs and Patents Act. (1988) Elizabeth II. Ch. 20. London: HMSO

    Name of the Act (in italics) :

    Copyright, Designs and Patents Act.

    Year of publication (in brackets) :

    (1988)

    Monarch :

    Elizabeth II.

    Chapter (abbreviated to Ch. and number) :

    Ch. 20.

    Place of publication :

    London:

    Publisher :

    HMSO   

  • Advertisements

    In the text:

    (Dove - Evolution, 2006)

    Title of advertisement (in italics) :

    Dove - Evolution,

    Year of publication :

    2006                                                                                                 


    In the bibliography:

    Dove - Evolution (2006) Directed by Yael Staav: Canada.

    Title of advertisement (in italics) :

    Dove - Evolution

    Year of publication (in brackets) :

    (2006)

    Directed by director(s) :

    Directed by Yael Staav:

    Place of production :

    Canada.                                                                                            

  • Archive material

    In the text:

    (Balint, 1972)

    Surname of author :

    Balint,

    Year of publication :

    1972                                                                                                                  


    In the bibliography:

    Balint, Michael (1972) Brief summary of a paper on A contribution to the question: what does a woman want? 22.3.72  [Dated typescript] Balint papers 14 University of Essex. The Albert Sloman Library

    Author's surname, then first name or initial :

    Balint, Michael

    Year of publication (in brackets) :

    (1972)

    Title of document :

    Brief summary of a paper on A contribution to the question what does a woman want? 22.3.72

    Medium (in square brackets) :

    [Dated typescript]

    Archive name and number :

    Balint papers 14

    Place of archive :

    University of Essex.

    Library name :

    The Albert Sloman Library                                                                                                

  • Artworks in exhibitions

    In the text:

    (Constable, 1821)

    Artist or photographer's surname :

    Constable,

    Year of creation :

    1821                                                                                                          


    In the bibliography: (If the artwork is part of a permanent collection:)

    Constable, J. (1821) The Hay Wain. [oil on canvas] 130.2 x 185.4 cm At: London: National Gallery.

    Artist or photographer's surname then first name or initial :

    Constable, J.

    Year of creation (in brackets) :

    (1821)

    Title of the work (in italics) :

    The Hay Wain.

    Medium (in square brackets) :

    [oil on canvas]

    Size :

    130.2 x 185.4 cm

    Details of collection or location :

    At: London:

    Name of gallery or museum :

    National Gallery.                                                                                  

    If the artwork was part of a temporary exhibition, the in text reference would be the same as that in a permanent collection with the dates of the exhibition added to the order of information at the end.

    Dates of exhibition :

    30 November 2007 - 3 February 2008.                                                                     

  • The Bible

    In the text:

    (Genesis 1:21)

    Scripture :

    Genesis 1:21                                                                                       


    In the bibliography:

    Genesis 1:21. In: The Holy Bible. London: Cassell, Petter and Galpin. p. 186

    Scripture :

    Genesis 1:21.

    In: Title of the edition of the bible (in italics) :

    In: The Holy Bible.

    Place of publication :

    London:

    Publisher :

    Cassell, Petter and Galpin.

    Page number(s) :

    p. 186                                                                                 

  • Blogs and Twitter

    In the text:

    (petrifiedprozac, 2009)

    Contributor's name :

    Petrifiedprozac,

    Year of publication :

    2009                                                                        


    In the bibliography:

    petrifiedprozac [reply] (2009) Jonathan Jones on Art [online blog] In: guardian.co.uk At: http://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/jonathanjonesblog/2009/jun/15/tracey-emin-drawings-white-cube?commentpage=3 (Accessed on 16.05.09).

    Contributor's name (If it's a reply to an article, add reply (in square brackets)) :

    petrifiedprozac [reply]

    Year of publication (in brackets) :

    (2009)

    Blog title or Twitter name :

    Jonathan Jones on Art

    Online blog or Twitter feed (in square brackets) :

    [online blog]

    In: Title of website (in italics)(only needed if blog is part of larger website)

    In: guardian.co.uk

    At URL :

    At: http://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/jonathanjonesblog/ 2009/jun/15/tracey-emin-drawings-white-cube?commentpage=3

    Accessed on date :

    (Accessed on 16.05.09)

  • Books

    In the text: 

    (Barry, 1995:34)

    Author's surname :

    Barry

    Year of publication :

    1995

    Page number(s) :

    34                                                                     


    In the bibliography: 

    Barry, Peter (1995) Beginning Theory. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

    Author's surname, then first name or initial :

    Barry, Peter

    Year of publication (in brackets) :

    (1995)

    Title (in italics) :

    Beginning Theory.

    Edition (in brackets) (if applicable) :

     

    Place of publication :

    Manchester:

    Publisher :

    Manchester University Press.                                           

    Note: If there is more than one edition of the book you need to state which edition you are referring to. Different editions may have different information, page numbers etc.. This is not the same as a reprinted version, which does not include a change of format. See the order of information below.

  • Chapters/essays in books

    Use when a book contains chapters written by different authors.

    In the text:

    (Benjamin, 2003:486)

    Chapter Author's surname :

    Benjamin,

    Year of publication :

    2003:

    Page number :

    486                                                                                    

    Note: This is not the date that Benjamin originally wrote the article. It is the publication date of the book referenced in your bibliography.


    In the bibliography:

    Benjamin, W. (2003) 'The Author as Producer' In: Harrison and Wood (ed.) Art in Theory. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 493-499

    Chapter author's surname, then first name or initial :

    Benjamin, W.

    Year of publication (in brackets) :

    (2003)                                                                                            

    Title of Chapter in single quotation marks :

    'The Author as Producer'

    In: Name of the editor / author of the book.  If editor(s) put (ed.) at the end :

    In: Harrison & Wood (ed.) 

    Title of book (in italics) :

    Art in Theory.  

    Place of publication :

    Oxford:

    Publisher :

    Blackwell.

    Page number :

    pp. 493-499

  • Computer games or programs

    In the text:

    (The Sims, 2003)

    Game or Program title (in italics)  :

    The Sims,

    Year of Publication                            :     

    2009                                                                                      


    In the bibliography:

    Electronic Arts. (2003) The Sims [DVD] Playstation 2. London: Electronic Arts

    Originator/Author :

    Electronic Arts.

    Year of publication (in brackets) :

    (2003)

    Game or Program Title (in italics) :

    The Sims

    Medium (in square brackets) :

    [DVD]

    Platform :

    Playstation 2

    Place of production :

    London:

    Publisher :

    Electronic Arts

  • Conversations

    In the text:

    (Smith, 2009)

    Surname of the person quoted :

    Smith,

    Year conversation took place :

    2009                                                                                      


    In the bibliography:

    Smith, John (2009) [Conversation about traffic problems in Farnham with Anne Brown held on 12 September 2009]


    Surname, then first name or initial of the person quoted :

    Smith, John

    Year conversation took place (in brackets) :

    (2009)

    Medium and exact date of conversation (in square brackets) :

    [Conversation about traffic problems in Farnham with Anne Brown held on 12 September 2009]  

  • Dictionaries/encyclopedias

    This method can be used to reference any reference books, such as dictionaries, encyclopedias, atlases etc.

    In the text:

    (Allen, 2006)

    Surname of author or editor :

    Allen,

    Year of publication :

    2006                                                               


    In the bibliography:

    Allen, R. (2006) 'Critical' definition. In: Penguin Complete English Dictionary. London: Penguin Books Ltd.

    Author's or editor's, surname then first name or initial :

    Allen, R.

    Year of publication (in brackets) :

    (2006)

    Entry title in single quotation marks :

    'Critical' definition.

    In: Title of dictionary or encyclopedia (in italics) :

    In: Penguin Complete English Dictionary.                                                         

    Volume number (if relevant) :

    Vol II

    Edition (if given) :

    2nd Edition

    Place of publication :

    London:

    Publisher :

    Penguin Books Ltd.

    Note: if there is no named author or editor, use the title and publication year for your in text reference and as the first entry in your bibliography (as shown in the online dictionary example).

  • Dictionaries/encyclopedias (online)

    In the text:

    (Merriam Webster, 2009)

    Dictionary Title :

    Merriam-Webster

    Year of publication :

    2009                                                                                


    In the bibliography:

    Merriam-Webster. (2009) 'Culture' definition 5a [online] At: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/culture (Accessed on 09.09.09)

    Dictionary title :

    Merriam-Webster.

    Year of publication (in brackets) :

    (2009)

    Title in single quotation marks (if the word has more than one definition, state which e.g. 5a) :

    'Culture' definition 5a

    Medium (in square brackets) :

    [online]

    At: URL :

    At: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/culture                                                  

    Accessed on :

    (Accessed on 09.09.09)

  • E-books

    In the text:

    (Samuel, 2001:46)

    Author's surname :

    Samuel,

    Year of publication :

    2001:

    Page number(s) :

    46                                                                      


    In the bibliography:

    Samuel, L. (2001) Postwar Advertising and the American Dream. [online] At: http://site.ebrary.com/lib/ucreative/docDetail.action?docID=10245781 (Accessed on 30.07.09)

    Author's surname then first name or initial :

    Samuel, L.

    Year of publication (in brackets) :

    (2001)

     Title of book (in italics) :

    Postwar Advertising and the American Dream.

    Medium (in square brackets) :

    [online]

    At: URL :

    At: http://site.ebrary.com/lib/ucreative/docDetail.action?docID=10245781                                              

    Accessed on date :

    (Accessed on 30.07.09)

  • E-Books reader (e.g. Kindle)

    In the text:

    (Howker and Malik, 2011)

    Author's surname :

    Howker and Malik,                                                       

    Year of publication :

    2011


    In the bibliography:

    Howker, Ed and Malik, Shiv (2011) Jilted Generation: How Britain Has Bankrupted Its Youth [Kindle Edition] From: Amazon.co.uk (Accessed on 29.03.12)

    Author's surname then first name or initial :

    Howker, Ed and Malik, Shiv.

    Year of publication (in brackets) :

    (2011)

    Title (in italics) :

    Jilted Generation: How Britain Has Bankrupted Its Youth                                                

    Medium (in square brackets) :

    [Kindle Edition]

    From (Or DOI - Digital Object Identifier if available) :

    From: Amazon.co.uk

    Accessed on date :

    (Accessed on 29.03.12)

  • Email attachments

    In the text:

    (Green, 2007)

    Email Author's surname :

    Green,

    Year email was sent :

    2007                                                                


    In the bibliography:

    Green, Simon (2007) A Critique of Blue Velvet [Email attachment sent from John Smith to Joan Brown, 25th December 2007].

    Email author's surname then first name or initial :

    Green, Simon

    Year email was sent (in brackets) :

    (2007)

    Subject of email (in italics) :

    A Critique of Blue Velvet

    Medium (in square brackets) and date sent :

    [Email attachment sent to Joan Brown 25th December 2007].                                                  

    Note: It would be advisable to keep a paper copy as evidence of the email and put it in your appendices.

Referencing text sources

  • Published reports (online)

    In the text:

    (Mintel, 2012)

    Name of organisation :

    Mintel,                                                                  

    Year of publication :

    2012


    In the bibliography:

    Mintel. (2012) Childrenswear - UK - January 2012 [online] At: http://academic.mintel.com/sinatra/oxygen_academic/my_reports/display/id=590005&anchor=atom#atom0 (Accessed on 06.03.12)

    Name of organisation :

    Mintel.

    Year of publication (in brackets) :

    (2012)

    Title of report (in italics) :

    Childrenswear - UK - January 2012

    Medium (in square brackets) :

    [online]

    At: URL :

    At: http://academic.mintel.com/sinatra/ oxygen_academic/my_reports/display/id= 590005anchor=atom#atom0                                           

    Accessed on :

    (Accessed on 06.03.12)

    Note: If you have more than one report from the same organisation, you would add a letter to the date e.g. (2012a), (2012b) and so on.

  • Questionnaires and surveys

    If you wish to cite an individual response then the respondee is the author as follows:

    In the text:

    (Harris, 2012)

    Surname of respondee :

    Harris,                                                                            

    Year questionnaire or survey carried out :

    2012


    In the bibliography:

    Harris, Sam (2012) Questionnaire on Library Services 12th February 2012.

    Respondee's surname then first name or initial :

    Harris, Sam

    Year questionnaire or survey carried out (in brackets) :

    (2012)

    Title of questionnaire or survey (in italics) :

    Questionnaire on Library Services                                                         

    Date of questionnaire or survey :

    12th February 2012.

    Note: If the questionnaire or survey was anonymous then replace the respondee's name with the title.

  • Secondary referencing

    Secondary referencing (a quotation found in a text not by the author of the text). If you can't find the original source, you need to reference the author who is included in your bibliography, and also the author of the original quotation.

    In the text:

    (any of these formats is acceptable)

    'There is no power relation without the correlative constitution of a field of knowledge, nor any knowledge that does not presuppose and constitute at the same time power relations.'(Foucault 1978, cited in Sheridan, 1980:138)

    Foucault (1978) argues that 'there is no power relation without the correlative constitution of a field of knowledge, nor any knowledge that does not presuppose and constitute at the same time power relations.' (Sheridan, 1980:138)

    In your bibliography it is the author of the book that needs to be included, in this case:

    In the bibliography:

    Sheridan, Alan (1980) Michel Foucault: The Will to Truth. London: Tavistock Publications Ltd.                       

    Order of Information:

    Author's surname, first name or initial :

    Sheridan, Alan

    Year of publication (in brackets) :

    (1980)

    Title (in italics) :

    Michel Foucault: The Will to Truth                                              

    Place of publication :

    London:

    Publisher :

    Tavistock Publications Ltd

  • Song lyrics and musical scores

    In the text:

    (Gray, 1998)

    Songwriter or composer surname :

    Gray,                                                                     

    Year of publication :

    1998


    In the bibliography:

    Gray, David (1998) Babylon In: White Ladder. London: Iht Records.

    Songwriter or composer, surname then first name or initial :

    Gray, David

    Year of publication (in brackets) :

    (1998)

    Title of the song or score (in italics) :

    Babylon

    In: album name (in italics) :

    In: White Ladder.                                                                    

    Place of publication :

    London:

    Publisher :

    Iht Records.

  • Television and radio programmes

    In the text:

    (Grand Designs: Series 6, Episode 19, 2009)

    Programme title, series, episode (in italics) :

    Grand Designs: Series 6, Episode 19,                                                   

    Year of publication :

    2009


    In the bibliography:

    Grand Designs: Series 6, Episode 19. (2009) Channel 4: 23 June. 19.00 hrs.

    Programme title, with series and episode numbers if available (in italics) :

    Grand Designs: Series 6, Episode 19.                                                       

    Year of publication (in brackets) :

    (2009)

    Name of channel :

    Channel 4:

    Transmission date (day.month.time) :

    23 June. 19.00 hrs.

  • Television programmes and film clips (viewed online)

    i.e. viewed via Estream, iPlayer, YouTube etc

    In the text:

    (Ways of Seeing, Episode 1, 1972)

    Title of video, episode and series (in italics) :

    Ways of Seeing, Episode 1,                                                        

    Year produced :

    1972


    In the bibliography:

    Ways of Seeing, Episode 1 [television programme online] Pres. Berger. BBC UK (1972) 30 mins At:  http://www.youtube.com/watchv=oiWjVY98h3c&feature=PlayList&p=0E5C136157EBB348&playnext=1&playnext_from=PL&index=17 (Accessed on 29.02.12)

    Title of video and episode and series (in italics) :         

    Ways of Seeing, Episode 1

    Medium (in square brackets) :

    [television programme online]

    Presenter,  performer or producer's surname :                  

    Pres. Berger.

    Broadcasting channel :

    BBC UK

    Year produced (in brackets) :

    (1972)

    Length of programme or clip :

    30 mins

    At: URL :

    At:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oiWjVY98h3c&feature=PlayList&p=0E5C136157EBB348&play     next=1&playnext_from=PL&index=17  

    Accessed on :

    (Accessed on 29.02.12)

  • Theses

    In the text:

    (Ahmed, 2000)

    Author's surname :

    Ahmed,                                                             

    Year of submission :

    2000


    In the bibliography:

    Ahmed, Nazia (2000) To what Extent Will Design Managers Have to Take into Account the Understanding of Brands in E-Commerce? [B.A. Dissertation] Surrey Institute of Art and Design.

    Author's surname, then first name or initial :

    Ahmed, Nazia

    Year of submission (in brackets) :

    (2000)

    Title of thesis or dissertation (in italics) :

    To what Extent Will Design Managers Have to Take into Account the Understanding of Brands in E-Commerce?                                       

    Statement of degree (in square brackets) :

    [B.A. Dissertation]

    Degree-awarding body :

    Surrey Institute of Art and Design.

  • Translated texts

    If you have used a source that is translated into English it is referenced like this:

    In text:

    (Freud, 2002: 31)

    Author's surname :

    Freud,                                                             

    Year of translation :

    2002:

    Page number(s) :

    31


    In the bibliography:

    Freud, S. (2002) The Psychopathology of Everyday Life. Translated by Anthea Ball. London: Penguin Books Ltd.

    Author's surname, then first name or initial :

    Freud, S.

    Year of translation (in brackets) :

    (2002)

    Title of text (in italics) :

    The Psychopathology of Everyday Life.                                                        

    Translated by :

    Translated by Anthea Ball

    Place of publication :

    London:

    Publisher :

    Penguin Books Ltd.

    Note:  For major works of historic significance, the date of the original work may be included next to the author, and the date of the translation next to the translator:

    Freud, S. (1901) The Psychopathology of Everyday Life. Translated by Anthea Ball. 2002. London: Penguin Books Ltd

  • If you have translated a text into English

    In text:

    (Domínguez, 2011: 14)

    Author's surname :

    Domínguez,                                                                

    Year of publication :

    2011:

    Page number(s) :

    14-15


    In the bibliography:

    Domínguez, Juan Manuel (2001) 'Córdoba Capital' In: El Amante Cine. 11.2011 (234) pp.14-15 (In Spanish).

    Author's surname, then first name or initial :

    Domínguez, Juan Manuel                                                      

    Year of publication (in brackets) :

    (2011)

    Title of text in single quotation marks :

    'Córdoba Capital'

    In: (if applicable) :

    In: El Amante Cine

    Volume or date then issue number (in brackets) :

    11.2011 (234)

    Page number(s) :

    pp.14-15

    In original language placed in  brackets :

    (In Spanish).

  • Websites and online documents

    In the text:

    (Giles, 2001)

    Author's surname :

    Giles,                                                          

    Year of publication :

    2001


    In the bibliography:

    Giles, J. (2001) A Filmmakers' Guide to Distribution and Exhibition. At: http://www.bfi.org.uk/filmtvinfo/publications/pub-repbrief/pdf/filmmakersguide.pdf (Accessed on 14.06.09)

    Author's surname, then first name or initial (or organisation name) :

    Giles, J.

    Year of publication (in brackets) :

    (2001)

    Title of document (in italics) :

    A Filmmakers' Guide to Distribution and Exhibition

    At: URL :

    At: http://www.bfi.org.uk/filmtvinfo/publications/pub-repbrief/pdf/filmmakersguide.pdf                             

    Accessed on :

    (Accessed on 14.06.09)

    Note: If there is no identifiable author, use the name of the organisation (or part of the organisation) instead, for example, BBC or The Guardian.  If the date is missing use (s.d) which means no date.

Frequently asked questions

  • How do I create a bibliography?

    A bibliography is a list of all the sources you have used in the process of researching your assignment.

    It should be on a separate page at the end of your essay, and the sources, such as books, journals, films, websites etc. should be listed in alphabetical order. The bibliography should appear in one sequence (i.e. not subdivided into types of sources, such as all the books together, all the journals together, etc.)

    It should be consistent in both typographical style and punctuation.

    Any images included in your assignment should be listed separately in a numbered list of illustrations, placed after the written assignment, and before the bibliography.

    Formatting a bibliography

    Entries are arranged in alphabetical order of surname, institution, or title as appropriate to the item cited.

    Capitalize the following in titles:

    • The first word of the title
    • All nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs

    Do not capitalize the following (unless they are the first word in a title):

    • Definite and indefinite articles (a , an , the ...)
    • Conjunctions (if, because, as , that, and, but, or ...)
    • Prepositions (on, between, before, under ...)

    Style/punctuation

    • A full stop will always follow the first name, the year and the title
    • A colon will always follow the 'In' or 'At' 
    • The year should always be in brackets, and titles should always be in italics 
  • How do I cite a direct or indirect quotation?

    When you quote someone else's exact words it is called a direct citation. These are signposted by using speech marks, the author's surname, year of publication and the page number, for example:

    'Einstein's brain is a mythical object' (Barthes, 1993:68)

    Direct quotations must be enclosed in single quotation marks to distinguish them from the rest of the text.

    Note: When submitting through Turnitin, quotations need to be in double quotation marks ("Q"). More information regarding using Turnitin is available online on our Academic Integrity webpages.

    If the quotation is more than 3 lines long, it should be indented:

    "ITV got off to a shaky start. In order to receive it, viewers needed to fit a special aerial and either to buy a new television or have their existing set adapted. Since in the first franchise areas only 33 per cent of households had taken these measures, the medium was not especially attractive to advertisers in terms of cost per thousand." (Crisell, 2002:93)


     

    Partial quotations can also be used, as long as they are within single quotation marks. The missing part of the quotation is then replaced with ... (three dots).

    "Another institutional difference between film and literature is to which texts are censored. Films tend, in the west, to be much more heavily censored than literature ... One effect of that is that graphic detail can be shown more powerfully using images." (Lacey, 2000:92)


     

    Paraphrasing (indirect citation) is when you explain another person's ideas or theories in your own words. These must be referenced with the author's surname, year of publication and page number, but they do not need speech marks:

    The notion of an invisible college has been explored in the sciences (Crane, 1972:62)


     

    It is possible to refer to the author's name within a sentence:

    As Crane (1965:62) points out, the notion of an invisible college has been explored in the sciences.


     

    If an author has published more than one work, the entry is subdivided by year. If the author had published more than one item in a year, these would be distinguished by lower­case letters following the year e.g.:

    Ellis, John. (1984a) Visible Fictions. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

    Citation within the text:

    As Ellis (1984a:45) has mentioned....

  • What if there is no date or more than one publication year given?

    If in doubt use the copyright © date.

    If there is no date use (s.d.) in its place. s.d. stands for sine die, or no date.

  • How do I cite a quotation given in a book written by a different author?

    Secondary referencing (a quotation found in a text not by the author of the text). If you can't find the original source, you need to reference the author who is included in your bibliography, and also the author of the original quotation.

    Either of these formats is acceptable within your text:

    "There is no power relation without the correlative constitution of a field of knowledge, nor any knowledge that does not presuppose and constitute at the same time power relations." (Foucault 1978, cited in Sheridan, 1980:138)

    Foucault (1978) argues that "there is no power relation without the correlative constitution of a field of knowledge, nor any knowledge that does not presuppose and constitute at the same time power relations." (Sheridan, 1980:138)

    In your bibliography it is the author of the book that needs to be included, in this case:

    In the bibliography:

    Sheridan, Alan (1980) Michel Foucault: The Will to Truth. London: Tavistock Publications Ltd.                       

    Order of Information:

    Author's surname, first name or initial :

    Sheridan, Alan

    Year of publication (in brackets) :

    (1980)

    Title (in italics) :

    Michel Foucault: The Will to Truth                                              

    Place of publication :

    London:

    Publisher :

    Tavistock Publications Ltd

     

  • How do I reference a book that has chapters written by different authors?

    Use when a book contains chapters written by different authors.

    In the text:

    (Benjamin, 2003:486)

    Chapter Author's surname :

    Benjamin,

    Year of publication :

    2003:

    Page number :

    486                                                                                    

    Note: This is not the date that Benjamin originally wrote the article. It is the publication date of the book referenced in your bibliography.


    In the bibliography:

    Benjamin, W. (2003) 'The Author as Producer' In: Harrison and Wood (ed.) Art inTheory. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 493-499

    Chapter author's surname, then first name or initial :

    Benjamin, W.

    Year of publication (in brackets) :

    (2003)                                                                                            

    Title of Chapter in single quotation marks :

    'The Author as Producer'

    In: Name of the editor / author of the book.  If editor(s) put (ed.) at the end :

    In: Harrison & Wood (ed.) 

    Title of book (in italics) :

    Art in Theory.  

    Place of publication:

    Oxford:

    Publisher :

    Blackwell.

    Page number :

    pp. 493-499

     

  • What if there is more than one edition, or year of publication, of the book?

    As text can vary between editions of the same work, it is important to list the edition, or year of publication, for the copy which you have used. First editions need not be specified.

    Use the latest publication date which is not a reprint date (if applicable).

    Check which edition you are referring to and include the edition in your bibliography entry, e.g. rev. ed or new ed. or 4th ed (if applicable).

  • What if there is more than one publisher given?

    If more than one publisher is listed, only give the first or the one which corresponds to the publishing place.

    If no publisher is given, use (s.n.) instead. S.n. means sine nomine, or no name.

  • What if there is more than one place of publication given?

    Use only the first named place, or the one which corresponds to the copyright date.

    If there is no place of publication use (s.l.) instead. S.l. means sine loco, or no location.

  • What if there is more than one author?

    If there are two authors, then list both, surname first and given names or initials afterwards, so that an in-text reference will look like this;

    (Bordwell and Thompson, 2008:67)

    and a bibliography entry will look like this;

    Bordwell, D. and Thompson, K. (2008). Film Art: An Introduction. London: McGraw-Hill.

    If there are more than two authors (or editors) then list the first one and then et al. (this is Latin for 'and everyone else') so an in-text reference will look like this;

    (Renckstorf et al, 1996:101)

    A bibliography entry will look like this;

    Renckstorf, K. et al (ed.) (1996). Media Use as Social Action. London: John Libbey & Company Ltd.

  • What if you need to refer to two works by the same author published in the same year?

    If an author has published more than one work, the entry is subdivided by year.

    If the author had published more than one item in a year, these would be distinguished by lower-case letters following the year e.g.

    Listing in the bibliography:

    Ellis, John. (1989a) Visible Fictions. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

    Ellis, John (1989b) Against Deconstruction.Guildford: Princeton University Press

  • What if I can't find out who the author is?

    If you really cannot find an author for a work you can either:

    Use the corporate author, e.g. BBC, TATE, etc. (if applicable)

    Or construct your reference without any author at all, and insert in your bibliography using the title in the alphabetical ordering.

  • What if some other information is missing?

    If there is no date use (s.d.) in its place. s.d. stands for sine die, or no date.

    If no publisher is given, use (s.n.) instead. s.n. means sine nomine, or no name.

    If there is no place of publication use (s.l.) instead. s.l. means sine loco, or no location.

    Try your best to find all the information required for your bibliographic entry, but if for some reason some information is missing, simply leave it out and try to ensure that you have given enough information to enable your reader to trace the source.

Contact Gateway

For information on our services, please contact the Gateway.

New Dover Road
Canterbury
Kent
CT1 3AN

Telephone: +44 (0)1227 817 314
Email: gatewaycanterbury@uca.ac.uk

 


Find out what is happening at Canterbury:

 

 

 

Term Opening Times
Monday - Friday 08:30 - 20:00
Saturday 10:00 - 17:00
Sunday 13:00 - 17:00

Holiday Opening Times
Monday - Friday 09:00 - 17:00

The Library is closed over Christmas, Easter and Bank Holidays. 

 

Ashley Road
Epsom
Surrey
KT18 5BE

Telephone: +44 (0)1372 202 461
Email: gatewayepsom@uca.ac.uk

 


Find out what is happening at Epsom:

 

Term Opening Times
Monday - Friday 08:30 - 20:00
Saturday 10:00 - 17:00
Sunday 13:00 - 17:00

Holiday Opening Times
Monday - Friday 09:00 - 17:00

The Library is closed over Christmas, Easter and Bank Holidays. 

 

Falkner Road
Farnham
Surrey
GU9 7DS 

Telephone: +44 (0)1252 892 709 
Email: gatewayfarnham@uca.ac.uk

 


Find out what is happening at Farnham:

 

Term Opening Times
Monday - Friday 08:30 - 20:00
Saturday 10:00 - 17:00
Sunday 13:00 - 17:00

Holiday Opening Times
Monday - Friday 09:00 - 17:00

The Library is closed over Christmas, Easter and Bank Holidays. 

 

Fort Pitt
Rochester
Kent
ME1 1DZ 

Telephone: +44 (0)1634 888 734 
Email: gatewayrochester@uca.ac.uk

 


Find out what is happening at Rochester:

 

 

Term Opening Times
Monday - Friday 08:30 - 20:00
Saturday 10:00 - 17:00
Sunday 13:00 - 17:00

Holiday Opening Times
Monday - Friday 09:00 - 17:00

The Library is closed over Christmas, Easter and Bank Holidays.